Alfonso Munera is the author of El fracaso de la nación – Región, clase y raza en el Caribe colombiano ( avg rating, 1 rating, 0 reviews) and Empresa. El fracaso de la nación abordó por primera vez en la historia de Americana Latina la participación de los afrodecendientes en la contruccion de la nación. by . El Fracaso de La Nacion by Alfonso Munera, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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Freyre and Vasconcelos provided their state elites with exactly those tropes that allowed them to forge nations where difference and claim-making based on previous discrimination, was made impossible thus not only saving those emerging states from potentially devastating law suits, but also offering to the different peoples living on Mexican and Brazilian soil a way to imagine themselves as a new and united people.

In Jamaica, paralleling the story of most of Latin America, “out of many, one people” has remained an empty promise and a promise that only superficially fracsao the deep-seated colorism that informs the social hierarchies of that country.

A Colony of Citizens. Being white, black, brown, mulatto, mestizo, etc. Clearly written and well documented, this book by Marixa Lasso is both an important contribution to the specialized literature on the history of race relations in the Americas and a great teaching tool on this and several other topics, including the process of independence in Spanish America.

This process is under way in such countries as Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia, but has not been carried out for most Caribbean nations, maybe with the rl of Cuba. I composed fracasoo talk as a fracasl of thought provocation – so please forgive me if some o the ideas seem radical or offensive.

El fracaso de la nación : región, clase y raza en el Caribe colombiano…

It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Spanish pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail. So what does this mean for the Caribbean?

At the level of groups, it appears that there are no groups in countries like Jamaica, Haiti, or the Dominican Republic.

This is the biggest fear of many elites in most the Caribbean basin – even those where “whiteness” is not a biogical reality at all and almost nobody can claim it. What is the story of nation building and race-making in the Caribbean? Where such efforts have not been pursued vigorously, myths of racial harmony tend to prevail.


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First, I will talk about what from my standpoint appears to be nzcion state of the art, or the things we know about multiculturalism and racialization in the region. We know next to nothing about the forging of nationalism in the Caribbean – maybe because it is a difficult topic for this region, as independence arrived late, or never to Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Aruba, Curacao, Guadeloupe, and Martinique and the question of national identity emerges together with the question of independence.

Race should thus fracasp be treated as a cause, or independent variable, but as an effect or outcome, a dependent variable. To the best of my knowledge, none of these two preconditions hold in the Caribbean. Race, thus, is a shared experience of exclusion and mistreatment, not a biological reality. Related articles in Google Scholar. Examples include the Colombian Constitution, Affirmative Action in Brazil, anti-discrimination legislation in Mexico, the Peruvian law which criminalizes discrimination, the new constitutions of Ecuador and Bolivia, as well as several policies and projects for Garifunas in Honduras, for indigenous people in Chile, and for Afro-descendants in Colombia.

My friend and colleague Maziki Thame 8a political scientist of the University of Jamaica, Mona Campus, wrote that in Jamaica, brown-skin people like Manley and Bustamante successfully mobilized the black masses – only to secure office for themselves and excluding blacks. Just imagine what could happened if we had reliable information about black unemployment ncaion to white unemployment, black and white educational levels, incarceration rates, etc.

Biology is not the relevant factor here. To this day, the black majority is unable to overcome its internal divisions and elect black candidates to political office.

Multiculturalism and Racialization in Latin America and the Caribbean. Haiti has a similar history, not yet coherently told despite the excellent work of such authors as Laurent Dubois 9 and C. By ordering life around the doctrine “the whiter the better” political elites are able to weaken potential power contenders, breaking them apart. From the US case, we can learn that categories reflect back on people’s lives and they start using these categories to self-identify. For the historically excluded, it was a decade of re-democratization and increased organization and successful mobilization, so that finally, in the s, we were able to witness changes in the social hierarchies and associated power structures of some Latin American countries.

Múnera by Samia Paola González on Prezi

Like I said before: To capture these constructions and ideological justifications of political power, merit, beauty, and social hierarchy, one needs to see beyond skin color and whiteness vs.


After moving to the US, I thus focused my academic work on the question ‘how to achieve democracy and development’ which to me automatically meant: This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. For this to happen, groups must first be proposed, or invented, and then the idea of a specific groupness must be actively disseminated by ethnopolitical entrepreneurs and their organizations.

This is the case for most of Latin America and the Caribbean. You could not be signed in. By not only actively promoting the idea that “we are all the same,” but criminalizing anybody who dared to say otherwise, these emerging states were able to achieve stability and undermine any attempts to forge potentially costly cleavages among its populations. Sign In or Create an Account. Even the pretty strong negritude movement around such authors as Aime Cesaire was not able to effectively challenge this monoculturalism, probably because negritude has remained a literary movement and as such never truly threatened white economic and political supremacy, nor did it challenge the state.

El Fracaso de La Nacion : Region, Clase y Raza En El Caribe Colombiano (1717-1821)

Look at Brazil for a prime example. So for now, my diagnosis is that, with the exception of indigenous groups, there are no groups in Latin America and the Caribbean and hence there is no multiculturalism.

University of North Carolina Press. Look at the history of the Jews in Europe or the Japanese Burakumin for examples on how “races” are made through discrimination. To come back to my topic, I suggests that the first learning in this reflection is that groups are social phenomena that need to be mutually recognized for them to have any effect on real life. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.

That is why we talk about racial regimes; because state power is involved in these projects.

These two motives are universal – at least we can assume them to be for analytical purposes, so we can then see how much insights these assumption render. Or think about the Dominican Republic.